International institutions setting standards for ICT

Table 2 (a work in progress)

Institution Example
Council of Europe Resource list:Anti-cybercrimenetworks
video with book author Evgeny Morozov demonstrating the relationship between the Internet and repressive regimes
video with Morozov showing how to put the Internet of Things to a more humane and citizen-focused use
2011 Declaration by Council of EuropeCommittee of Ministers
EU The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
eIDAS – Electronic Identification and Signature (Electronic Trust Services) final draft approved
Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik (DKE) keeps a database on IT security with "yellow pages" for easier orientation
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) DTR/CYBER-0004 (TR 103 306) Cyber Security Ecosystem an assemblage of "enumerated lists in alphabetic order of global cyber security constituents"
European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) is planning standards work on distributed ledger technology (DLT).
U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology ( known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.
International Standards Organization (ISO) 27001 standard for an Information Security Management System (ISMS) explained on Wikipedia Special Working Group on the Internet of Things Reference Architecture (IoT RA)
International_Electrotechnical_Commission (IEC)
IEEE developed the 802 standards from Local Area Networks (LANs) as described in these videos.
A number of IEEE standards address elements of security that can be applied to the Internet of Things as listed in an article by Alan Grau entitled "How to Build a Safer Internet of Things" in IEEE Spectrum dated 25 Feb 2015
International Society of Automation Industrial Automation and Control System Security Committee IEC 62443/ISA99
The Industrial Internet Consortium
Open Interconnect Consortium "On February 19 2016 the OIC changed its name to the Open Connectivity Foundation" per Wikipedia See also Engebretson Joan(2016):"Understanding Home Automation Standards" SDMMagazine March4
Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS-Open)
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
Internet Society
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) describes itself as "an international community that develops open standards to ensure the long-term growth of the Web." Like ESMA it is working on inter-ledger technology.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Internet Governance Mapping Initiatives an overview assembled by Stefaan G.  Verhulst as a two-part presentation on "Synergies between GIPO and other initiatives" at a workshop that took place in Sofia on the 4th June 2015.
Payment Card Industry (PCI) standards explained on Wikipedia
United Nations International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative.  All activities in the IoT-GSI have been transferred to the Study Group SG20
United Nations Human Rights Commission International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights June 2014:Report The right to privacy in the digital age (PDF)
United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) uses standards for Electronic Identity (EID) developed by the German BSI for many countries according to a German-language article by Klaus Schmeh and Thomas Zeggel entitled "Allzweckkarte" in the Sept. 2014 edition of the monthly iX
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
International Conference on Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners Madrid Resolution: International Standard on the Protection of Personal Data and Privacy (adopted 2009 see 2009 in this list)

Natris, Wout de (2020): Setting the standard. For a more Secure and Trustworthy Internet, 88 pages PDF,

A new addition is the bold proposal for a Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) put forth by Girard, Michel (2020): Standards for Digital Cooperation, CIGI Paper No. 237

One of the best lists of Standards Development Organizations is in Baird, Stacy: “The Government at the Standards Bazaar” in: Opening Standards: The Global Politics of Interoperability, ed. by deNardis,Laura (2011),p.15 ff.

There is a “dynamic” list of computer standards developing on Wikipedia. Likewise there are 20 specific definitions of an open standard there.

The Identity Ecosystem Steering Group (IDESG) maintained until 2016 a wiki compiling known identity-related standards.

The EU Horizon project LIGHTest headed by the Open Identity Exchange (OIX) produced a document called “Inventories”, Version: 2.5, Status: Final D2.2,

LIGHTest “Inventories” point to the following standards from ISO, ITU and ETSI:
• ISO/IEC 29115:2013
• ISO/IEC 15945:2002 Specification of Trusted Third Parties services to support the application of digital signatures (ISO, 2002)

These ITU standards X.1250-X.1279 are about Identity management:
• X.1250 (ITU, 2009): Baseline capabilities for enhanced global identity management and interoperability.
• X.1251 (ITU, 2009): A framework for user control of digital identity.
• X.1252 (ITU, 2010): Baseline identity management terms and definitions.
• X.1253 (ITU, 2011): Security guidelines for identity management systems.
• X.1254 (ITU, 2012): Entity authentication assurance framework.
• X.1255 (ITU, 2013): Framework for discovery of identity management information.
• X.1275 (ITU, 2010): Guidelines on protection of personally identifiable information in the application of RFID technology

ETSI EN 319 122 (CAdES)
• ETSI EN 319 122-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Published Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); CAdES digital signatures; Part 2: Extended CAdES signatures
• ETSI EN 319 122-1 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Published Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); CAdES digital signatures; Part 1: Building blocks and CAdES baseline signatures
• ETSI EN 319 132 (XAdES)
• ETSI EN 319 132-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Published Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); XAdES digital signatures; Part 2: Extended XAdES signatures
• ETSI EN 319 132-1 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Published Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); XAdES digital signatures; Part 1: Building blocks and XAdES baseline signatures
• ETSI EN 319 142-2 (PAdES)
• ETSI EN 319 142-2 V1.1.1 (2016-04) Published Electronic Signatures and Infrastructures (ESI); PAdES digital signatures; Part 2: Additional PAdES signatures profiles

Institutions newly ordered by Joseph S. Nye Jr in his 2014 paper entitled “The Regime Complex for Managing Global Cyber Activities”;Global Commission on Internet Governance Paper Series No.1;available on or here in PDF

In 2019 Nye published a paper for the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace entitled “Eight Norms for Stability in Cyberspace”.

Chapter 2: “International human rights standards and digital surveillance” in Michael Karanicolas: Travel Guide to the Digital World;2014;published by Global Partners Digital (GPD)in anticipation of the Hague conference in April 2015;available as a PDF.

Standards as threatened by growth of the Internet of Things are dealt with in Drake,  William J. / Vinton G. Cerf / Wolfgang Kleinwächter (2016):
Internet Fragmentation: An Overview. Future of the Internet Initiative White Paper, pages 49-50

Interoperability as the vision that standard-setters pursue is dealt with in Palfrey, John / Urs Gasser (2012): Interop: The Promise and Perils of Highly Interconnected Systems

A World Built on Standards – A Textbook for Higher Education (2015), Signe Annette Bøgh (Editor), published by Danish Standards Foundation, 115 pages, download

Radu, Roxane: Negotiating Internet Governance download

Kettemann, Matthias C.: The Normative Order of the Internet. Perspectives and Potentials of Internet Governance  download

Ten Oever, Niels: Wired Norms download


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